TEXAS 09/30/14 medpagetoday.com: by Michael Smith – A man in intensive care in Dallas is the first person to be diagnosed with Ebola in U.S., the CDC said. The man, who flew from Liberia Sept. 19 and arrived in Dallas Sept. 20, is “critically ill” at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital, according to CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD. . . . Frieden said the man was checked for fever before getting on his U.S.-bound flight Sept. 19 and had no symptoms until Sept. 24. He did not give details of the flight, saying there was no risk to other passengers because Ebola is not infectious in its asymptomatic phase. Frieden and other health officials also did not give details of the man’s activities between Sept. 26, when he first sought care, and Sept. 28 when he was admitted to Texas Health Presbyterian. . . The Ebola outbreak has been raging in West Africa for several months, after it was first recognized in March. In the three hardest-hit countries — Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone — the virus has caused 6,553 infections and 3,083 deaths, according to the latest situation report from the World Health Organization. – For complete article see http://www.medpagetoday.com/InfectiousDisease/GeneralInfectiousDisease/45296
Author’s Note: Because Ebola can be transmitted from animals to people it is classified as a zoonotic disease.
Excerpts from cdc.gov re Ebola Virus: Ebola, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with one of the Ebola virus strains. Ebola can cause disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees).
Ebola is caused by infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus. There are five identified Ebola virus strains, four of which are known to cause disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans.
Ebola viruses are found in several African countries. Ebola was first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Since then, outbreaks have appeared sporadically in Africa.
The natural reservoir host of Ebola virus remains unknown. However, on the basis of evidence and the nature of similar viruses, researchers believe that the virus is animal-borne and that bats are the most likely reservoir. Four of the five virus strains occur in an animal host native to Africa.
Because the natural reservoir host of Ebola viruses has not yet been identified, the manner in which the virus first appears in a human at the start of an outbreak is unknown. However, researchers believe that the first patient becomes infected through contact with an infected animal.
Symptoms of Ebola include:
- Fever (greater than 38.6°C or 101.5°F)
- Severe headache
- Muscle pain
- Abdominal (stomach) pain
- Unexplained hemorrhage (bleeding or bruising)
Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after exposure to Ebola, but the average is 8 to 10 days. Recovery from Ebola depends on the patient’s immune response. People who recover from Ebola infection develop antibodies that last for at least 10 years.
When an infection does occur in humans, the virus can be spread in several ways to others. Ebola is spread through direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with
- blood or body fluids (including but not limited to urine, saliva, feces, vomit, and semen) of a person who is sick with Ebola
- objects (like needles and syringes) that have been contaminated with the virus
- infected animals
- Ebola is not spread through the air or by water, or in general, food. However, in Africa, Ebola may be spread as a result of handling bushmeat (wild animals hunted for food) and contact with infected bats.
No specific vaccine or medicine (e.g., antiviral drug) has been proven to be effective against Ebola.
Symptoms of Ebola are treated as they appear. The following basic interventions, when used early, can significantly improve the chances of survival:
- Providing intravenous fluids (IV)and balancing electrolytes (body salts)
- Maintaining oxygen status and blood pressure
- Treating other infections if they occur
Some experimental treatments developed for Ebola have been tested and proven effective in animals but have not yet been tested in randomized trials in humans.
Missouri 09/29/14 abc17news.com: by Lindsey Henry – A 52-year-old Cole County man is dead after apparently contracting rabies. Family members told ABC 17 it all started about two weeks ago when John Emmerich of Eugene felt severe neck pain, began shaking, (had) trouble swallowing, and (had) hallucinations. Not long after that, he was admitted to University Hospital where he died last Friday. Family members said test results last week came back from the CDC and confirmed Emmerich had rabies. He died the following day. The Miller County Health Department said Missouri’s Health Department is investigating the cause of death. – For complete article see http://www.abc17news.com/news/cole-county-man-apparently-dies-after-being-infected-with-rabies/28324396
Arizona 09/30/14 kfyi.com: Health officials in Coconino County have confirmed that fleas from dead prairie dogs found in Flagstaff have tested positive for bubonic plague. – See complete article at http://www.kfyi.com/onair/arizona-news-55067/bubonic-plague-found-in-arizona-12816601
WEST NILE VIRUS (WNV):
Washington 09/30/14 yakimaherald.com: Health officials have confirmed a fourth human case of WNV contracted by a Yakima County woman in her 40s. Human cases of WNV have also been confirmed in each of three other locations in the state including Walla Walla and King counties, and Grays Harbor. – See http://www.yakimaherald.com/news/latestlocalnews/2541203-8/west-nile-virus-case-verified-in-yakima